Colporrhaphy is also know as Vaginal wall repair, anterior and/or posterior colporrhaphy, anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall repair, or simply A/P repair or A&P repair - is a surgical procedure in humans that repairs a defect in the wall of the vagina. It is the surgical intervention for both cystocele (protrusion of the urinary bladder into the vagina) and rectocele (protrusion of the rectum into the vagina).
The repair may be to either or both of the anterior (front) or posterior (rear) vaginal walls, thus the origin of some of its alternative names.
Anterior and posterior repair are minimally invasive procedures used to correct pelvic organs that have dropped out of their normal positions.
When the tissues that support the pelvic organs become weak, stretched or damaged, due to age or childbirth for example, the organs can slip out of place, dropping down and pressing against the walls of the vagina. This is known as pelvic organ prolapse. These sagging organs create a bulge in the vagina, causing pressure, pain, discomfort, and urinary and bowel dysfunction, among other symptoms.
Anterior and posterior repair are used to tighten the support tissues that hold these organs in place, restoring their normal position and function.
Anterior repair is used to tighten the front (anterior) wall of the vagina. It is used when the bladder drops out of its normal position and bulges into the front of the vagina, causing the front wall of the vagina to sag. This condition is known as anterior wall prolapse, cystocele or dropped bladder.
During the surgery, the bladder is pushed back into its normal position and the support tissue between the front of the vagina and the bladder is tightened and reinforced. The procedure is also called an anterior vaginal wall repair or anterior colporrhaphy.
Posterior repair is used to tighten the back (posterior) wall of the vagina. It is used when the rectum drops out of its normal position and bulges into the back of the vagina, causing the back wall of the vagina to sag, which may result in bowel dysfunction. This condition is known as posterior wall prolapse, rectocele or fallen rectum.
During the surgery the rectum is pushed back into to its normal position, and the support tissue between the back of the vagina and the rectum is tightened and reinforced. The procedure is also called a posterior vaginal wall repair or posterior colporrhaphy.
Salpingo-oophorectomy is surgery to remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes.Removal of one ovary and fallopian tube is called a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. When both are removed, it’s called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
This procedure is used to treat a variety of conditions, including ovarian cancer.
Sometimes healthy ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed to help prevent ovarian cancer in women who are at particularly high risk. This is known as a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery has been shown to be highly effective in lowering the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Learn more about the causes and risk factors for ovarian cancer.
Salpingo-oophorectomy doesn’t involve removal of the uterus (hysterectomy). But it’s not uncommon for both procedures to be performed at the same time.
Who should have this procedure?
You might be a good candidate for this procedure if you need treatment for:
- Ovarian cancer
- Benign tumours, cysts, or abscesses
- Ovarian torsion (twisting of the ovary)
- Pelvic infection
- Ectopic pregnancy
It can also be used to reduce the risk of ovarian and breast cancer in women who are at high risk, such as those who carry BRCA gene mutations. Reducing the risk of breast and ovarian cancer may be a viable and cost-effective option.
After your ovaries are removed, you’ll be infertile. That’s an important consideration if you’re premenopausal and would like to conceive a child