There are a number of medical problems, which can affect the penis, which can also be related to a previous surgery. In some cases, especially at the time of circumcision, there may be too much skin removed, which can result in pain and difficulty penetrating during intercourse. The area may also be unsightly due to scarring, particularly with circumcisions performed as a child. In these cases the skin can either be removed or joined up again or alternatively if more skin is required, plastic surgical techniques including skin grafting, Z-plasty and other grafting procedures may be used to try and stretch the skin. In some cases where there has been a condition called Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans or Lichen Sclerosis, the skin on the head of the penis, or glans, is very scarred and ulcerated. In cases which fail to respond to steroid treatment, the skin of the head of the glans can in part, or completely be removed and resurfaced using skin grafts (see published outcome data). In other instances there may be swelling of the penis and scarring of the penis due to previous surgery or radiotherapy treatments. Again reconstructive techniques can be used in these cases to achieve a good functional and cosmetic result.